Vannevar Bush was not the only one pushing for a war preparedness program. William Allen White, a Pulitzer Prize-winning
journalist and supporter of the Progressive Party, also recognized the need for American preparation. In May 1940, he founded
the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA), a non-isolationist response to the America First Committee.
White and his supporters advocated financial and material support for Britain as the best means of containing the war in Europe
and preventing direct interference by the U.S. In a demonstration of unbiased commitment to the cause, White refused to accept
support or donations from any steel manufacturers, weapons makers, or other parties that would benefit financially from the
adoption of his plan. As his campaign grew, he gained a number of notable followers including journalist and political reformist
Clarence K. Streit.
Many Americans were assuming a more confrontational stance than that taken by White. One result was the formation of the
Fight for Freedom, Inc. (FFF) organization, which advocated an interventionist program that would place the United States
forces in direct combat with the German military. Where the CDAAA only supported involvement through legislation like the
Lend-Lease Act, the FFF campaigned for a preemptive move against Hitler.