In the summer of 1957, as a follow-up to the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, Bertrand Russell and other activists held the world’s
first independent conference of scientists from both sides of the Iron Curtain to discuss their concerns about nuclear weapons.
Held at Pugwash, the Canadian estate of a wealthy industrialist, the meeting was so successful that a series of them were
planned. Pauling was unable to attend the first Pugwash meeting because of his travel schedule, but eagerly joined in planning
the second for 1958 in Vienna.
By now Pauling’s efforts to rein in the testing of H-bombs, with their attendant fallout, was taking up most of his time.
If he was not debating the head of the Atomic Energy Commission on Edward R. Murrow’s See It Now television program, he was joining a lawsuit enjoining the federal government to halt tests, or writing letters to the editors
of national magazines, or giving speeches, interviews, and public appearances. His high public profile ensured ongoing attacks
against his patriotism. Time magazine, for instance, ran photos of Pauling, along with other anti-Bomb activists, over the caption, "Defenders of the
unborn . . . or dupes of the enemies of liberty?"
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Group photo of participants at the Second Annual Pugwash Conference. Lac Beauport, Canada. 1958.
Participants deliberating at the Second Annual Pugwash Conference. Lac Beauport, Canada. 1958.
"I venture to say that, precious as your time is, you could hardly use it to better effect than to contribute to the resolution
of some of the problems which you are to discuss, for upon them depends the future existence of mankind. I believe that the
resolution of our present dilemma will be achieved only if we succeed in bringing to bear on common problems an important
part of the best creative intelligence of mankind, and that only thus shall we avoid a threatening catastrophe."